This style dictates certain rules and guidelines for different types of references, including books.
There are also a number of different situations that affect how you will write your references such as whether the book has more than one author and whether it involves a chapter in an edited book. The following examples and guidelines can help you prepare book references in proper APA format. First, let's start by looking at the standard APA format for writing a book reference. The basic structure of a book reference should list the author's last name , first initials, publication year, book title, location, and publisher.
This basic format can be used for many types of book references that have a single author or multiple authors. However, you may need to use one of the following formats for books that are edited, have no author, translated, or requires some specialized formatting. How should you reference a book that is an edited edition with a single or several editors?
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Edited books with one or more authors should follow the basic structure of a book reference and include the initials, last name, and 'Ed. For example:. Adler, A. The individual psychology of Alfred Adler: A systematic presentation of selections from his writings. Ansbacher Eds. New York: Basic Books. Edited books with no author should list the last name and first initials of the editor or editors, followed by 'Ed. The remainder of the reference should follow the basic structure and include the publication year, book title in italics, location, and publisher.
Atkinson, J. Motivation and achievement. Washington, DC: V.
Sometimes books feature a collection of articles written by different authors in an edited book. Articles by individual authors that appear in such works should list the last name and first initial of the author, followed by the publication date, and book title. Pages on the internet should be cited where used.
APA Citation Style & Formatting: Citing Electronic or Online Books
You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets.
The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited.
The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics capitalized , the date, and finally the page where the article was found. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write.
Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture.
Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation.
The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important.
There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher.
Where there is no author, often there is an organization.
Put the name of the organization. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in c. Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published.
This is easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher.
Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics capitalized , the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized.
Capitalization is not very hard to achieve.
Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity.
No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual Ritter, will be able to give you further guidance. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely.
Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief OED, There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs.
The worst case is deliberate plagiarism for whatever reason. Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it?
A Deeper Look at Citations
Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference.
How do I refer to a book by title in-text in APA format? - Ask Us! Answer Service
Place of publication: Publisher. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. To cite an article inside of a book using MLA format, start by writing the author's last name, then add a comma. Next, write their first name and add a period. In quotation marks, enclose the title of the article you are citing, followed by a period. Then, in italics, write the name of the book, add a comma, write "edited by," and include the name of the editor. After a period, conclude with the name of the book's publisher, along with the year and the relevant page numbers, separated by commas.
Alternatively, if you want to do an in-text citation, provide the author's name and page number in parentheses at the end of the line, before the period. For more advice, like how to cite an article inside of a book in APA format, keep reading! This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness.
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