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Patricia James ed. Cambridge University Press Published in two volumes, these books provide a student audience with an excellent scholarly edition of Malthus' Essay on Population. Written in as a polite attack on post-French revolutionary speculations on the theme of social and human perfectibility, it remains one of the most powerful statements of the limits to human hopes set by the tension between population growth and natural resources.
Based on the authoritative variorum edition of the versions of the Essay published between and , and complete with full introduction and bibliographic apparatus, this edition is intended to show how Malthusianism impinges on the history of political thought, and how the author's reputation as a population theorist and political economist was established. Philosophy of Biology. Edit this record. Mark as duplicate. Find it on Scholar. Request removal from index.
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An essay on the principle of population, as it affects the future improvement of society,
Watson corresponded with and published several counterarguments to the works of Thomas Paine and Thomas Robert Malthus among others. In very good condition with some browning to the text as usual, sporadic foxing.
The verso features two further partial lines of text relating to supply and demand. The clipping is in near fine condition.
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The second proposition states that the growth of population will out-run the increase in food production. He seemed to think that there was no limit to the fertility of man. But the power of land to produce food is limited. Malthus thought that the law of diminishing returns operated in the field of agriculture and that the operation of this law prevented food production from increasing in proportion to labour and capital invested in land.
In fact, Malthus observed that population would tend to increase at a geometric rate 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, etc. According to the third proposition, as the food supply in a country increases, the people will produce more children and would have larger families. This would increase the demand for food and food per person will again diminish. Therefore, according to Malthus, the standard of living of the people cannot rise permanently. Preventive checks exercise their influence on the growth of population by bringing down the birth rate.
An Essay on the Principle of Population - Wikipedia
Preventive checks are those checks which are applied by man. He thinks that with a large number of children, the standard of living of the family is bound to be lowered. He may think that if he has to support a large family, he will have to subject himself to greater hardships and more strenuous labour than that in his present state. He may not be able to give proper education to his children if they are more in number.
Further, he may not like exposing his children to poverty or charity by his inability to provide for them. These considerations may force man to limit his family. Late marriage and self-restraint during married life are the examples of preventive checks applied by man to limit the family. Positive checks exercise their influence on the growth of population by increasing the death rate.
They are applied by nature.
T. R. Malthus, an Essay on the Principle of Population: Volume 2
The positive checks to population are various and include every cause, whether arising from vice or misery, which in any degree contributes to shorten the natural duration of human life. The unwholesome occupations, hard labour, exposure to the seasons, extreme poverty, bad nursing of children, common diseases, wars, plagues and famines ire some of the examples of positive checks. They all shorten human life and increase the death rate. Malthus recommended the use of preventive checks if mankind was to escape from the impending misery.
If preventive checks were not effectively used, positive checks like diseases, wars and famines would come into operation. As a result, the population would be reduced to the level which can be sustained by the available quantity of food supply.
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Gloomy forecast made by Malthus about the economic conditions of future generations of mankind has been falsified in the Western world. As a result, living standards of the people have risen instead of falling as was predicted by Malthus. But by making rapid advances in technology and accumulating capital in larger quantity, advanced countries have been able to postpone the stage of diminishing returns. By making use of fertilizers, pesticide better seeds, tractors and other agricultural machinery, they have been able to increase their production greatly.
In fact, in most of the advanced countries the rate of increase of food production has been much greater than the rate of population growth.
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