Phd thesis on real estate


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The current real estate downturn has not only pushed delinquencies Jeffrey David Massachusetts Institute of Technology , This thesis will evaluate whether an unsatisfied need to access private commercial market real estate investment opportunities exists on the behalf of individual investors via their Individual Retirement Accounts IRAs The proposed expansion of the Boston Convention and Exhibition Center was approved by the Massachusetts legislature in In , the governor put the expansion on hold citing an overstated economic impact.

An analysis of U. K property funds classified according to U. This analysis explores the feasibility of sorting UK funds into three different styles, which are widely used in the US. In an overview of major factors' impact on the expected risk of a fund, the analysis shows that Numerous studies have shown that retrofitting an office building with energy efficiency improvements can significantly reduce operating costs, yet many existing office buildings have not been retrofitted. The objective of The ability of Commercial Real Estate to provide strong current income returns has long been one of its benefits of inclusion into a long-term portfolio.

Capital Expenditures can significantly hamper this income return of This thesis examines and analyzes the alignment of incentives, project control, and economics in development agreements between private developers and mission-driven institutions. Mission-driven institutions, such as Universities within the Unites States have long been active in the real estate development market surrounding their respective campuses.

However, beginning with the baby boom in the late s, colleges have begun expanding Much research has been done to examine the volatilities of return on public and private real estate investments. However, little is known about market volatility in real estate in general and in apartment real estate in The DSM is a process modeling tool that originated Real estate development RED has traditionally been a very dynamic business, where real estate developers strive to turn an idea into a real asset, by delivering a quality project on time and on budget. In recent years, The projects were studied and risk management plan, risk identification, risk analysis, and risk response planning were covered by the study.

The researcher had the following constraints: i time, ii area and iii method. Key Assumptions Risk occurs in every construction project, if it occured, it will be threat and if it is managed it will be converted into the opportunity. Management of construction risk could be handled by team especially experienced and skilled project managers. Significance of the Study Housing and real estate is rapidly growing, which is a new sector in Nepal and suffering from various adversities.

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It is also observed that the recent crisis observed in financial institutions of the country is the consequence of the investment on this sector. However, no systematic effort has been initiated either by government or by professionals to study the role that has been played by this sector in national economy as well as the risks associated in this sector. Similarly, it will also help government for formulating and revising its policies affecting this sector. Operational Definition of the Key Terms Risk management: A simple, common and systematic approach to risk management, suggested by Berkely and others j, has four distinct stages: a risk classification, b risk identification, c risk assessment, and d risk response.

In the first stage, risks should be classified into different groups with criteria in order to clarify the relationships between them. The second stage entails the identification of the risks pertaining to risk management. The third stage is to assess and evaluate the effects of these risks. In the final stage, appropriate risk response policies should be developed to reduce and control the risks……………..

University of Tasmania

Firstly, a hierarchical structure for classifying various sources of risk in overseas projects is presented. Secondly, the identification of risk factors in overseas projects is investigated. Thirdly, an effective risk assessment technique is introduced which combines risk probability analysis with risk impact assessment. Finally, the risk response techniques for overseas projects are also examined, and some strategies for risk allocation among project partners are suggested Zhi, Construction: it is the process in which to create new structure as per engineering drawing, specification, and instruction of civil engineer, which is guided by legal valid document between the constructor, engineer, and client.


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Housing: It is a legal entity, which gives the shelter, protect from unwanted environment, similarly it gives social status of the human. Housing also a legal entity owns real estate, consisting of one or more residential buildings. This is one type of housing tenure. Each shareholder in the legal entity is granted the right to occupy one housing unit, sometimes subject to an occupancy agreement, which is similar to a lease. Risk: Vaugham has defined risk as a condition of the real work in which there is an exposure to adversity. More specifically, risk is a condition in which there is a possibility of an adverse deviation from a desired outcome that is expected or hoped for.

PMI, Guide to PMBOK Project life cycle: A collection of generally sequential and sometimes overlapping project phases whose name and number are determined by the management and control needs of the organization or organizations involved in the project, the nature of the project itself, and its area of application. The project life cycle provides the basic framework for managing a project, regardless of the specific work involved PMBOK Guide, Client: Person or organization that commission buildings or constructions for themselves or for someone else.

Management system: The structured way, in which organizations chose to control their business, including such ingredients as economy, organization and problem solving. Examples of management systems are quality management systems, environmental management systems and knowledge management system.

Journal of African Real Estate Research to reconstitute its Editorial Board

Project Manager: Person that is closely involved in the construction project either as superior to the site manager or as the clients representative, closest to the project. Site manager: The person responsible for the project on the construction site Uncertainty: An overarching term that could have two possible outcomes, a risk or an opportunity. Chapter 1 deals with the introduction of the whole thesis.

This chapter provides general background of the study. Similarly, problem statement and objectives of the study as well as significance of the study are presented in this chapter. Chapter 2, which is Literature review includes general understanding of the subject matter under study and presents the review of the studies undertaken in this area. Chapter 3, is Research methodology. It covers research design, study area, study site and rationale for selection, population and sample including work schedule.

Chapter 4 is the data analysis chapter that includes the analysis based on the collection from the research side as well as from knowledge obtained from the academician and experts.

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Chapter 5 and 6 focus on the findings: In this chapter finding of the research are presented based on the data analysis. Chapter 7 Conclusion: In this chapter, conclusions are arranged based on the findings of the research. Table 3 explains the brief summary of organization of the thesis.

Housing and apartments gives the shelter which is basic need after food for eat and clothes for wear. When United Nations General Assembly approved the universal declaration of human rights UDHR by 48 votes, with eight abstentions, stating that everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing, its importance cannot express by arranging few words in my research.

In the same way and under the sub topics Statement of the Problems brief problems that has been explained. In the same way, Worth of research, research purpose, research questions, delimitations, scopes, key assumptions, significance of the Study, operational definition of the key terms, and organization of Thesis were discussed related problems under the sub topics.

After studying all principles, there are various risk factors which affect the time, increase the expenditure and not able to achieve the specified quality which lost the productivity of the companies. At last, the organization of the whole thesis has given in tabulated frame. The coming chapter is literature review. In this chapter, generic literatures are reviewed. In this chapter literature related to the risks and risk management aspects along with the studies that have under taken are reviewed.

In context of review, books journals and documents regarding the risk in housing and real estate construction projects were reviewed. In this chapter, I have presented the ideas thematically and critically. In addition, I have presented drawing and chart in explanatory form, which I claim as 'put in the small bag review' because it provides a strong procedure to know the vital area.

Holton points out that the finance discipline lacks a formal, uniformly accepted definition of the word "risk" In his Nobel Prize-winning work on portfolio theory Harry Markowitz avoided defining the term even though risk minimization is central to his model. Holton argues that risk includes two components: exposures and uncertainty.

This means that while we ponder risk we believe we are subject to it and we are not sure what will happen. So we can define perceived exposure or perceived uncertainty, and therefore perceived risk.

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But there is no such thing as true risk. From this article mentioned about the perceived exposure and uncertainty so as perceived risks.

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There are a lot of definitions of risk in literature. For some authors, risk is defined as the possible occurrence of negative or adverse effects that lead exclusively to damage or loss, whereas other authors define it as the possibility of occurrence of either negative or positive effects Garrido et all, Risk is defined as an exposure to the consequences of uncertainty.

Risk can be defined as an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or a negative effect on a project objective Mousa, On the other hand, risk can be stated as a situation where the actual outcome of an activity deviates from the estimate or forecast value. Thus, the major difference between risk and uncertainty is related with its quantification.


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Risky situations have quantifiable attributes, whereas uncertainty does not Arikan, Uncertainty denotes two alternates. It may uncertain now and may be certain after a while. Other one will be uncertain forever.


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  • Therefore, within the uncertainty there is risk factor. A risky situation must involve a chance of loss.

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