Olschewski Roland, for granting me the possibility and liberty to work in my own way as well as supervision of this thesis and whose help, stimulating suggestions and encouragement helped me in all the time of research for and writing of this thesis. I am especially obliged to Bianca Dunker and Christoph Neitzel who looked closely at the final version of the thesis for English style and grammar, correcting both and offering suggestions for improvement.
Many thanks also to Marco Harbusch, Sol Heber, Chistof Jaszczuk and all the others whose names have not been listed here. I would like to give my special thanks to my most dear girlfriend Mai Zeidani, who was of great help in difficult times and whose patience and love enabled me to complete this work. Spiritual thanks also to my deceased landlady Prof.
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Gerda Freise who just passed away. Her continuous political support and encouragements led me through. To all my colleagues, brothers and sisters in the struggle for freedom and justice and against Racism here in Germany and elsewhere in the world, I express my deepest thanks for your support and solidarity. Last but not least, special thanks to my daughter who might not realise it now, but she was the driving force of my convictions to study and also finish this work.
To my family in Cameroon and in Germany, I express my heart-felt gratitude. This work also goes to my deceased parents who would have certainly been proud of my accomplishments and are definitely proud wherever they are now.
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To them I owe a great deal of knowledge and strength. Table 18 Was your village involved and consulted in the planning and implementation of the KP activities? Community refers to a heterogeneous group of people who share residence in the same geographic area and access to a set of local natural resources.
The degree of social cohesion and differentiation, strength of common beliefs and institutions, cultural diversity and other factors vary widely within and among communities Schmink It is a forest established through an agreement by which the service in charge of forestry allots to a community a portion of national forest, which the community manages, preserves and exploits in its own interest Manga et al. Community participatory policies : Formulation of policies with the objective of involving the local stakeholders or communities in projects which affect them.
Conservation refers to the long-term maintenance of ecosystem biodiversity through the management of multiple forms of resource use and preservation. The concept, as defined here, applies to the landscape scale as opposed to genetic or species-level conservation , and includes the different human groups as well as the natural species that inhabit the ecosystem Schmink A Dependent variable is the value of an outcome, i.
Devolution of authority is the decentralization of power and responsibilities from state level to local stakeholders and NGOs with operating authority from their institutions following the bottom-up strategy instead of top-down rule. It covers an area of 5, sq. The Reserve accommodates a large proportion of the equatorial flora and wildlife species including such endangered species as the forest elephants, the chimpanzees, and the gorillas Jean Lagarde BETTI.
An independent variable is any of the arguments, i. Indicators are performance objectives or targets; i. Level of integration implies the intensity and stages of interaction of the different stakeholders. Macro- and Micro levels : Between national institutions and local people, e. Grimble et al. Opportunity Cost is the value of the next best choice that one gives up when making a decision.
Any decision that involves a choice between two or more options has an opportunity cost. It is a methodology for action research and utilizes a range of techniques. It involves local people and outsiders from different sectors and disciplines. Outsiders facilitates local people in analyzing information, practicing critical self-awareness, taking responsibility and sharing their knowledge of life and conditions to plan and to act.
Handari Stakeholders are different social actors, formal or informal, who can affect, or be affected by, the resource management issues at hand Schmink Stakeholder analysis involves different levels of analysis and relationships to resources, including organizations, groups and individuals at international, national, regional and local levels, as well as different actors within local communities and domestic groups Schmink Support buffer zone : A 3km Peripheral Zone including 23 villages and a population of 2, This was created in order to help local people find sustainable economic alternatives to the present hunting, trapping, gathering and deforesting practices in the park.
Traditional and indigenous conservation methods : These are carried out through traditional hunting seasons, NTFPs harvesting practices, establishment of sacred forest by the secret traditional societies, dealing with the problems of the environment through self or transferred experience, with the respect to certain taboos. Traditional institutions are village or customary councils like the village traditional council e. With and Without principle : The impacts of a concrete project can be depicted as the difference between the situation with and without project. This holds especially for forestry projects with a long duration.
If CBC is not sustainable, project costs or benefits are likely to be over- or underestimated. Additionally, only effects that are actually caused by the project are to be included in the analysis Bergen et al. Community-Based Conservation CBC refers to wildlife conservation efforts that involve rural people as an integral part of a wildlife conservation policy.
In Africa and specifically in Cameroon, there have been changes in state policies towards natural resources management particularly forest resources. Since , a new forest policy act was enacted proclaimed in to accommodate two approaches, that is, Community Forestry and sustainable forest management.
Wildlife Conservation Essay
It also investigates the interest and the relationship of the different stakeholders concerned, especially the local community. The thesis uses three hypotheses which are limited to CBC , semi-structured questionnaires and secondary data to test or investigate successful policy implementation in the KNP by analysing, i the role the local communities, ii the international environmental NGOs and groups played in the former Korup Project and iii the level of biodiversity conservation and rural development in the Korup Project Area KPA.
The study was carried out in the southern sector of the KNP with a simple-random sampling of 78 respondents out of 11 villages of the 32 villages in and around the National Park. The results indicate: i low participation of the local communities in the Integrated Conservation and Development Project ICDP and later joint participatory biodiversity conservation and rural development approach of the KP, ii a difficult relationship between the international stakeholders and the local communities, and iii a temporary success in biodiversity conservation and a failure in rural development.
From the results, it is concluded and recommended that though the Government of Cameroon GoC has enacted many policies of authority devolution in the forestry and wildlife sector to include the local communities in biodiversity conservation projects, much still has to be done to practically implement these policies. Furthermore, it is recommended that a better interactive relationship be established between future project authorities and the local communities.
This would then most probably enhance successful joint participatory biodiversity conservation and rural development in the KPA. Although more research is needed, the study indicates that it is not too late to successfully implement a community-based biodiversity project which will reduce pressure in the KNP and at the same time enhance rural development for the communities in and around the Park.
Die Studie analysiert die Bedingungen unter denen die politischen Leitlinien des CBC erfolgreich in Kamerun umgesetzt werden konnten bzw. Dies dient dazu, zu erfahren, ob und wie erfolgreich der KNP war bzw.
Die Interviewpartner wurden durch einfache Zufallsauswahl zur Befragung ermittelt. In Africa and specifically in Cameroon, there has been changes in state policies towards natural resource management; particularly forest resources. Since , a new forest policy act was enacted proclaimed in to accommodate two approaches, that is, Community Forestry and Sustainable Forest Management.
Conserving and enhancing biodiversity through rural peoples involvement was one of the components of the new forest policy act of This was done with the aim of protecting the environment and conserving resources and also as a mechanism to alleviate poverty through rural development. And like most other less industrialised countries, which have tried to implement new forest laws or direct participation of the local communities in forest management, Cameroon has had its successes and failures in formulating and implementing such new laws. The Government of Cameroon GoC with its new forest policy of represented an important step towards addressing sustainable renewable resource management in the context of an overall national development strategy.
The new forest law defined the regulatory basis for management of the forest estate. The law provides participation of local communities in the management of certain categories of gazetted forests, and requires the preparation and implementation of government-approved management plans for forests to be re-gazetted under the law as a prerequisite for granting future timber concessions. The effectiveness of this law has since then been dependent on the government's capacity to develop management plans for sustainable forest exploitation and biodiversity conservation on a participatory basis and to monitor and enforce their implementation, especially in gazetted areas.
Though the protected areas management approaches that involve the participation of local communities are now being widely promoted all over in Cameroon, the impacts of such Community-Based Conservation Initiatives on local communities remain poorly defined.
It was only at the beginning of the fourth quarter of the last century, with the growing interest in biodiversity conservation and concern over deforestation that more attention has been paid by western conservationists, with pressure on some West and Central African states, to the conservation of tropical rainforests. Community forests, gazetted areas like forest reserves and national parks have been created with the consultation of local and indigenous populations.
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International and state financed projects and programmes have been carried out in the last two decades to sustainably manage and conserve biodiversity through the communities involved. The KNP stands as a model, with conflicts and harmony for the implementation of a variety of biological diversity conservation policies in Cameroon. Since its inception in , the KNP has seen many changes in policy implementation, from state control, through support of environmental NGOs with Integrated Conservation and Development Projects ICDPs , sustainable and participatory natural resource management, with local community involvement.
Since the onset of the idea of a national park in Korup, the creation of the KNP itself and the Korup Project KP, the main interest of the study that followed, much research and surveys have been carried out to review the formulation, planning and implementation of policies in the Korup Project Area KPA, which is the KNP and its support zone. This however, has not really led to outstanding results to set an example to other park managements.
How far this failure contributes to the end results of the KP and influences the continuous management of the KNP, with the importance of information flow in rational resource management and planning will be analyzed by this study. The final phase of the KP in the South West of Cameroon was full of conflicts, distrust and mismanagement. Even though this phase of the project was oriented towards integrated community involvement, its impacts still have to be fully studied. An impact assessment was commissioned, which came out with results in June and reported to the then project staff.
Although literally much is known about the stakeholders and the defined roles that they are supposed to play in conservation projects or programmes, the practicality on the field comes out with conflicting results. Officially, the KP which ended in was supposed to be an ICDP or a CBC with a development component, which implies the full involvement of the locals or indigenous people. Reports from many researches carried out in the area have proven otherwise. This research study analysed the conditions under which the CBC concepts can be successfully implemented in Cameroon, investigating the interest and the relationship of the different stakeholders concerned with focus on the local community.
Using the theory on CBC, the successes and failures in the approaches in management, the social effects and how they impact the local community will be analysed in the thesis. In doing this, the research will come up with recommendations for the policy makers and also proposals to the local communities on how to better plan, coordinate and implement CBC policies.
Who are the stakeholders focus groups and individuals involved and their level of involvement in conservation projects and programmes? KNP as case study 4. What are the strategies of policy implementation of CBC projects, their impacts and effects on the indigenous community perception of the local communities of the KNP? To describe the overall concept of conditions for a successful CBC and contribution of the local community in the success or failure of biodiversity conservation projects. To identify the links between conservation and development and the conditions of success, analysing how it was practiced in the KPA with community participation in the KP.
Over the last three decades, the participation of the local communities and the indigenous people in nature conservation projects has been seen as a precondition for the success of such undertakings. In many countries of the tropics and in Cameroon in particular, financial and technical support from international conservation organizations and groups only come with the preconditions that the local communities participate and their interests equally represented in conservation project formulation and implementation.
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